Basic Fact Sheet Detailed Version Basic fact sheets are presented in plain language for individuals with general questions about sexually transmitted diseases.
Disclaimer Untreated maternal syphilis and adverse outcomes of pregnancy: Correspondence to Gabriela B Gomez e-mail: Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; Up to one third of the women attending antenatal care ANC clinics are not tested for syphilis.
Programmes that include syphilis testing coupled with appropriate, prompt penicillin treatment for pregnant women who test positive for Treponema pallidum infection have been shown to be efficacious in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Evidence-based estimates of the burden of congenital syphilis at the global, national and subnational levels help make the case for allocating resources to these effective programmes, increasing access to interventions and making progress towards elimination.
Calculating the burden relies on precise estimates of the local prevalence of syphilis and adverse pregnancy outcomes among untreated women with syphilis. Previous estimates of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with syphilis have been based on point estimates from single studies.
The last search was performed in December We included literature published in any language and on any date. We reviewed references in seminal papers, review articles and medical textbooks.
We canvassed experts in the field to identify additional studies, particularly older studies that may have been published before the availability of online databases.
The grey literature and conference abstracts were not searched. Because our goal was to estimate the range of possible birth outcomes associated with untreated syphilis during pregnancy, our population of interest was pregnant women who had untreated syphilis. We included studies that described pregnancy outcomes among women presumed to have syphilis i.
We focused on fetal, neonatal and infant outcomes because maternal outcomes of syphilis would not be expected for several years after disease onset and were unlikely to have been reported in the same studies.
We included studies of at least 30 patients that described the sampling strategy used to recruit patients from the community, hospitals or ANC clinics. We excluded studies describing partially treated populations, unless adverse pregnancy outcomes were reported specifically among women who lacked syphilis testing or treatment i.
We considered a broad range of study designs, including clinical trials, observational studies, programme reviews and case series. We assessed potential studies to ensure that there was no duplication of case series.
The data extracted included study characteristics such as study year, geographical location, diagnostic test used, sample size for cases and controls, design, length of follow-up, type of outcome and frequency estimates for T. Length of follow-up varied among the studies.
Statistical analysis We calculated crude proportion estimates and standard errors SEs for all adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with untreated syphilis and women without syphilis. We then calculated crude proportion estimates and SEs for the following select adverse pregnancy outcomes: We separately calculated crude proportion estimates of infant death defined as a death occurring between ages 29 and days to allow for the differentiation between neonates and infants.
Proportions were transformed into logits.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of STD Prevention (DSTDP) and The American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association (ASTDA) have partnered to bring you the latest research. Sexual Risk and Protective Factors Factors Affecting Teen Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, Childbearing And Sexually Transmitted Disease: Which Are Important?
Sexual Risk and Protective Factors Factors Affecting Teen Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, Childbearing And Sexually Transmitted Disease: Which Are Important? Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
The signs and symptoms of syphilis vary depending in which of the four stages it. Sexually transmitted infection; Synonyms: Sexually transmitted diseases (STD), venereal diseases (VD) "Syphilis is a dangerous disease, but it can be cured.". Sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs, are usually defined as those diseases that primarily spread through intimate contact.
They're not the only diseases that can spread during sex.