October 19, The Future of Truth and Misinformation Online Experts are evenly split on whether the coming decade will see a reduction in false and misleading narratives online. Those forecasting improvement place their hopes in technological fixes and in societal solutions.
The theory of cognitive dissonance was advanced by Leon Festinger in the s. Upon experiencing this feeling, humans are motivated to reduce it in order to return to a more consistent state. Although Festinger theorized that cognitive dissonance can occur, he did not suggest that cognitive dissonance always occurs when people are faced with inconsistency.
He noted that the experience of dissonance depends upon three factors: A more important dissonant belief will cause more cognitive dissonance than a less important dissonant belief. One dissonant belief and many consonant beliefs will produce less dissonance than many dissonant and many consonant beliefs.
The experience of dissonance can motivate people to engage in any of a number of dissonance reduction strategies. This also can be done by seeking agreeable information and avoiding discrepant information.
Over the years, many modifications to the theory have been proposed. Some researchers, for example, have argued that the theory works mainly with respect to cognitive elements related to the self.
Despite proposed modifications, scholars continue to draw from the original theory. Although the theory was first introduced and examined by psychologists, it gained traction in the field of communication. The theory was helpful in explaining some earlier patterns observed by those researching the influence of communication, such as the seeming preference citizens displayed for like-minded information.
In contemporary communication literature, the theory is most frequently referenced when scholars want to offer an explanation for why an effect may occur. Research is less frequently done specifically on the central tenets of the theory.
This article focuses predominantly on articles that have been written in the field of communication rather than attempting to review the numerous studies that have been done on this topic in related fields, such as psychology and political science.
Although research did yield articles from many different communication subfields, many citations were from the area of mass media as opposed to interpersonal communication, for example. This article emphasizes recent contributions and those that have garnered considerable attention through high rates of citation.
Core Texts Cognitive dissonance emerged in the s and inspired many studies that draw from its central tenets. The texts in this section represent the historical texts that introduced and refined the theory. The most-important texts in the cognitive dissonance tradition include two books by Leon Festinger.
Festinger outlines the original version of the theory. Festinger includes numerous experiments with collaborators that probe the basic tenets of the theory. Festinger and Carlsmith is also noteworthy because of its counterintuitive findings that are anticipated clearly by cognitive dissonance theory.
Brehm and Cohenfor example, focuses on the role of commitment in the experience of dissonance.JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.
When Prophecy Fails: A Social and Psychological Study of a Modern Group That Predicted the Destruction of the World is a classic work of social psychology by Leon Festinger, Henry Riecken, and Stanley Schachter which studied a small UFO religion in Chicago called the Seekers that believed in an imminent apocalypse and its coping mechanisms after the event did not occur.
Moving them into a more critical analysis of cultural critique and its value is difficult, but that’s what I seek: not just analysis and critique of Disney, but discussion of why we should analyze and critique all the cultural productions that surround us. Humans strive for cognitive consistency, at least according to the theory of cognitive dissonance and a host of consistency theories that emerged in the midth century.
The theory of cognitive dissonance was advanced by Leon Festinger in the s. This paper offers an analysis of the cognitive dissonance theory, its' history, literature review, and future directions.
The paper clearly states the concept of cognitive dissonance and how it functions. Furthermore the paper identifies ways to reduce dissonance. The paper is valuable in assessing personal research skills as well as critical thinking.
Critical analysis of Dane S.
Claussen's paper on cognitive dissonance, media illiteracy and public opinion on news media This paper aims at providing a critical analysis of Dane S. Claussen's paper on, and titled, cognitive dissonance, media .