Transfer of Learning Teaching for transfer is one of the seldom-specified but most important goals in education. We want students to gain knowledge and skills that they can use both in school and outside of school, immediately and in the future. Transfer of learning deals with transferring one's knowledge and skills from one problem-solving situation to another.
Non-associative learning[ edit ] Non-associative learning refers to "a relatively permanent change in the strength of response to a single stimulus due to repeated exposure to that stimulus. Changes due to such factors as sensory adaptationfatigueor injury do not qualify as non-associative learning.
Habituation Habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which the strength or probability of a response diminishes when the stimulus is repeated.
The response is typically a reflex or unconditioned response. Thus, habituation must be distinguished from extinctionwhich is an associative process. In operant extinction, for example, a response declines because it is no longer followed by a reward.
An example of habituation can be seen in small song birds—if a stuffed owl or similar predator is put into the cage, the birds initially react to it as though it were a real predator.
Soon the birds react less, showing habituation. If another stuffed owl is introduced or the same one removed and re-introducedthe birds react to it again as though it were a predator, demonstrating that it is only a very specific stimulus that is habituated to namely, one particular unmoving owl in one place.
The habituation process is faster for stimuli that occur at a high rather than for stimuli that occur at a low rate as well as for the weak and strong stimuli, respectively. Sensitization Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus Bell et al.
After a while, this stimulation creates a warm sensation that eventually turns painful. The pain results from the progressively amplified synaptic response of the peripheral nerves warning that the stimulation is harmful. Active learning Experiential learning is more efficient than passive learning like reading or listening.
Since understanding information is the key aspect of learning, it is important for learners to recognize what they understand and what they do not. By doing so, they can monitor their own mastery of subjects. Active learning encourages learners to have an internal dialogue in which they verbalize understandings.
This and other meta-cognitive strategies can be taught to a child over time. Studies within metacognition have proven the value in active learning, claiming that the learning is usually at a stronger level as a result. Conversely, passive learning and direct instruction are characteristics of teacher-centered learning or traditional education.
The research works on the human learning process as a complex adaptive system developed by Peter Belohlavek showed that it is the concept that the individual has that drives the accommodation process to assimilate new knowledge in the long-term memorydefining learning as an intrinsically freedom-oriented and active process.
In operant conditioning, a behavior that is reinforced or punished in the presence of a stimulus becomes more or less likely to occur in the presence of that stimulus.
Classical conditioning The typical paradigm for classical conditioning involves repeatedly pairing an unconditioned stimulus which unfailingly evokes a reflexive response with another previously neutral stimulus which does not normally evoke the response.
Following conditioning, the response occurs both to the unconditioned stimulus and to the other, unrelated stimulus now referred to as the "conditioned stimulus".
The response to the conditioned stimulus is termed a conditioned response.
The classic example is Ivan Pavlov and his dogs.The Learning Environment In order for a learning to succeed during the autonomous stage, athletes must consider the atmosphere in which they practice. This environment needs to be comfortable and safe.
The necessary equipment must be available and structured properly.
Nature of the Skill. Skills are characterised by four factors. Additionally, with an open learning environment, employees use the resources at their disposal to skill up and grow knowledge in areas that will better equip them for future positions within the organization.
The learning environment refers to the nature of the skill and whether it is an open or closed skill, gross or fine skill, discrete, serial or continuous skill and if it is self-paced or externally paced.
Beliefs about the nature of teaching and learning beliefs and practices to teachers’ perceived efficacy and the quality of the learning environment. Decisions are the heart of success and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing and nerve racking.
This side provides useful and practical guidance for making efficient and effective decisions in both public and private life. Beliefs about the nature of teaching and learning beliefs and practices to teachers’ perceived efficacy and the quality of the learning environment.