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Advanced Search Abstract Background: The combination of four protective lifestyle behaviours being physically active, a non-smoker, a moderate alcohol consumer and having adequate fruit and vegetable intake has been estimated to increase life expectancy by 14 years.
However, the effect of adopting Reflection on a journal article healthy lifestyle behaviours on general health, obesity and mental health is less defined. Respondents scored a maximum of four points, one point each for being physically active, consuming five or more fruit and vegetable servings daily, a non-smoker and a moderate drinker.
Adoption of core protective lifestyle factors known to increase life expectancy is associated with positive self-rated health, healthier weight and better mental health.
These lifestyles have the potential to add quality and quantity to life. There is increasing recognition of the value of these behaviourally defined protective behaviours for health promotion and population health monitoring, 1—8 and advice on smoking cessation, healthy diet, physical exercise and moderation in alcohol consumption has been a pillar of health education for many years.
This work has been replicated in a cross-sectional study with markers of cardiovascular risk including hypertension, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. They identified four lifestyle behaviours: Examining the effects of individual risk factors for chronic disease and poor physical and mental health is not a new concept; however, their combined effect on general health, obesity and mental health is less well defined.
Methods Based on the work by Khaw et al. Participants scored one point for each of the following health behaviours: Respondents could score from zero to four on protective health behaviours. Sampling The population for the survey was defined as adults aged 18 years and over living in residential households in Ireland residents of institutions, nursing homes, hospitals, prisons and homeless hostels were not included.
Full details of the sampling frame and weighting can be found elsewhere. The sample was a multi-stage probability sample, where each dwelling has a known probability of selection. The sample was weighted to closely approximate the Census figures for gender, age, marital status, education, occupation, region, household size and ethnicity.
For the purpose of this article, current smokers are compared with non-smokers. Average alcohol consumption was estimated as the units of alcohol consumed per week. For the purpose of this article, a moderate drinker was defined as someone who consumed between 1 and 14 units a week.
Respondents were also asked if they had experienced any chronic illness from a pre-defined list in the previous 12 months. International physical activity questionnaire IPAQ Respondents were asked a series of questions relating to the time they spent being physically active.
The responses were used to calculate a physical activity score IPAQ score for each respondent. These scores were classified as high over 10 steps per daymoderate —10 steps per day or low less than steps per day. Composite international diagnostic interview CIDI Respondents were asked a series of questions pertaining to their mental health status.
Full details of the FFQ have been documented elsewhere.
Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between PLB score, self-rated health, probable depressive disorder and obesity levels after adjusting for age, sex, education and social class. Additionally, we examined the relationship between PLB score and past diagnoses of medically diagnosed chronic illness.
Results Demography Table 1 shows a breakdown of the relevant participant characteristics differentiated by gender.
Higher proportions of women were of normal weight and consumed five or more daily servings of fruit and vegetables compared with men. Men were more likely to be smokers, to consume more alcohol and to be physically active compared with women. Women were more likely to have adopted more of the PLBs.
Table 2 shows the age, gender, social demographic profile and the distribution of key outcome variables in five groups of study participants defined on the basis of number of PLBs. Clear and highly significant trends were seen for age, gender, education and social classification status.Biosensors, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal.
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